Что такое каршеринг?

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Carsharing or car sharing (AU, NZ, CA, & US) or car clubs (UK) is a model of car rental where people rent cars for short periods of time, often by the hour. They are attractive to customers who make only occasional use of a vehicle, as well as others who would like occasional access to a vehicle of a different type than they use day-to-day. The organization renting the cars may be a commercial business or the users may be organized as a company, public agency, cooperative, or ad hoc grouping. It differs from traditional car rental in that the owners of the cars are often private individuals themselves, and the carsharing facilitator is generally distinct from the car owner. Carsharing is part of a larger trend of shared mobility. Shared mobility includes all modes of travel that offer short-term access to transportation on an on-needed basis either for personal transportation or goods delivery .

Carsharing services are available in over 1,000 cities in several countries.

As of December 2012 [update] , there were an estimated 1.7 million car-sharing members in 27 countries, including so-called peer-to-peer services, according to the Transportation Sustainability Research Center at U.C. Berkeley. Of these, 800,000 were car-sharing members in the United States.

As of July 2017, car2go is the largest carsharing company in the world with 2,500,000 registered members and a fleet of nearly 14,000 vehicles in 26 locations in North America, Europe and Asia. , followed by Zipcar with 767,000 members and 11,000 vehicles .

According to Navigant Consulting, global carsharing services revenue will approach US$1 billion in 2013 and grow to US$6.2 billion by 2020, with over 12 million members worldwide. The main factors driving the growth of carsharing are the rising levels of congestion faced by city dwellers, shifting generational mindsets about car ownership, the increasing costs of personal vehicle ownership, and a convergence of business models. Carsharing contributes to sustainable transport because it is a less car intensive means of urban transport, and according to The Economist, carsharing can reduce car ownership at an estimated rate of one rental car replacing 15 owned vehicles.

In the United Kingdom, where it is a recent development, the term «car clubs» is used for what in the United States is called «carsharing», «car sharing» or «car-sharing». In the UK, «car sharing» refers to what is called «carpooling» or «ride sharing» in the US, namely the shared use of a car for a specific journey, in particular for commuting to work, often by people who each have a car but travel together to save costs, in South Africa, this is called a «lift scheme». In the UK, a «car pool» refers to a fleet of cars made available by an organization to its employees (which is usually referred to as a «motor pool» in the US), for example to travel to customers or between different office locations.

In India, in contrast to the vast majority of the Indian car rental market that is defined by chauffeured-service, Indian people refer to car-sharing as «self-drive.»

Carsharing benefits individuals who can gain the benefits of private cars without having costs and responsibilities associated with car ownership. Instead a household accesses a fleet of vehicles on an as-needed basis. Carsharing may be thought of as organized short-term car rental.

Carsharing has sprung up in different parts of the world and operations are organized in many different ways in different places. Sizes of organizations vary from one shared car, and only a handful of sharers to organizations that serve a complete urban area.

Generally, carsharing programs can be qualified as one of four sharing types: Roundtrip, one-way, peer-to-peer, and fractional. In roundtrip carsharing, members begin and end their trip, often paying by the hour, mile, or both. One-way carsharing, on the other hand, enables members to begin and end their trip at different locations through free floating zones or station-based models with designated parking locations . Peer-to-peer carsharing (sometimes referred to as Personal Vehicle Sharing ) operates similarly to roundtrip carsharing in trip and payment type, however, the vehicles themselves are typically privately owned or leased with the sharing system operated by a third-party. The fractional ownership model allows users to co-own a vehicle and share its costs and use .

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Carsharing differs from traditional car rentals in the following ways:

  • Carsharing is not limited by office hours
  • Reservation, pickup, and return is all self-service
  • Vehicles can be rented by the minute, by the hour, as well as by the day
  • Users are members and have been pre-approved to drive (background driving checks have been performed and a payment mechanism has been established)
  • Vehicle locations are distributed throughout the service area, and often located for access by public transport.
  • Insurance: state minimum liability insurance (only $5000 in some states), comprehensive and collision insurance. They do not provide uninsured, under-insured or personal injury protection insurance.
  • Fuel costs are included in the rates.
  • Vehicles are not serviced (cleaning, fueling) after each use, although certain programs (such as Car2Go or GoGet) continuously clean and fuel their fleet

Some carshare operations (CSOs) cooperate with local car rental firms, in particular in situations wherein classic rental may be the cheaper option.

Carsharing can provide numerous transportation, land use, environmental, and social benefits. Neighborhood carsharing is often promoted as an alternative to owning a car where public transit, walking, and cycling can be used most of the time and a car is only necessary for out-of-town trips, moving large items, or special occasions. It can also be an alternative to owning multiple cars for households with more than one driver. A long-term study of City CarShare members found that 30 percent of households that joined sold a car, others delayed purchasing one. Transit use, bicycling, and walking also increased among members. City CarShare\’s early adopters were found to be mostly non-car-owners, resulting in increased car-miles traveled one-year into the program , two years into the program, car-sharing began to enter the mainstream of San Francisco\’s traveling public, prompting many families to give up second cars , and by year five, nearly a third of City CarShare\’s member households had shed a private motorized vehicle. A study of driving behavior of members from major carsharing organizations found an average decline in 27% of annual vehicle kilometres travelled (VKT). That said, it is important to note that the success of carsharing programs depends on if it provides the consumers with «better mobility or sufficient mobility at reduced cost.»

Carsharing is generally not cost-effective for commuting to a full-time job on a regular basis. Most carsharing advocates, operators, and cooperating public agencies believe that those who do not drive daily or who drive less than 10,000 kilometers (about 6,200 statute miles) annually may find carsharing to be more cost-effective than car ownership. But variations of 50% on this figure are reported by operators and others depending on local context. [ citation needed ] If occasional use of a shared vehicle costs significantly less than car ownership, then carsharing makes automobile use more accessible to low-income households.

Carsharing can also help reduce congestion and pollution. It is noted as a tool for achieving VMT and GHG reduction targets in the California Transport Plan (CTP) 2040 . Replacing private automobiles with shared ones directly reduces demand for parking spaces. The fact that only a certain number of cars can be in use at any one time may reduce traffic congestion at peak times. Even more important for congestion, the strong metering of costs provides a cost incentive to drive less. With owned automobiles many expenses are sunk costs and thus independent of how much the car is driven (such as original purchase, insurance, registration, and some maintenance).

Successful carsharing development has tended to be associated mainly with densely populated areas, such as city centers and more recently university and other campuses. There are some programs (mostly in Europe) for providing services in lower density and rural areas. [ citation needed ] Low-density areas are considered more difficult to serve with carsharing because of the lack of alternative modes of transportation and the potentially larger distance that users must travel to reach the cars.

People who have joined carsharing tend to sell either their primary, secondary, or another off-hand car, after using the service. This reduces the cost of transportation per month by an average of $135 – $435, based on University of Berkeley\’s Research in 2008.

The technology of CSOs varies enormously, from simple manual systems using key boxes and log books to increasingly complex computer-based systems (e.g. partially automated and fully automated systems) with supporting software packages that handle a growing array of back office functions. The simplest CSOs have only one or two pick-up points, but more advanced systems allow cars to be picked up and dropped off at any available public parking space within a designated operating area.

While differing markedly in their objectives, size, business models, levels of ambition, technology and target markets, these programs do share many features. The more established operations usually require a check of past driving records and a monthly or annual fee in order to become a member. The cost and maximum time a car may be used also varies.

To make a reservation, one can either make a reservation online, by phone, or by text messages depending on the company’s flexibility. There is a higher chance of availability the earlier the reservation is. If a reservation is cancelled however, one may still be charged.

Once the reservations are completed and confirmed, the car will then be delivered at the time and place scheduled. There will be a small card reader mounted on the windshield. Once the customer places their membership card on the reader, it will use what is called blink technology to activate the time and unlock the car. The reader will not work until it is time for that specific reservation. The keys can then be found somewhere inside the car such as the glove compartment. Depending on the company, the customer may be provided with a key to a lock box that contains the ignition key itself. Once the customer is set, they are off to their next destination.

Although members are often responsible for cleaning the car and filling up the tank when low, the carsharing company is generally responsible for the long-term maintenance of the vehicles. Members have to make sure that when they are finished, the car is ready for the next user to move on.

  • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carsharing

Смотрите видео: Что такое каршеринг? Поминутная аренда авто в Москве. Киа Рио

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